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Курсовая

Lexical Problems of Literary Translation by the examples of the novel “Theater” by Somerset Maugham

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Table of Contents:
I. Introduction.          
II. Translation of Word.        
2.1. Lexical Correspondences.          
2.2. Translation of the Words that don’t have Direct Lexical Correspondences in the Russian language.           
III. Translation of Connected Word-Combinations (Phraseological Units).          
3.1. Characteristics of English Figurative Phraseology.      
3.2. Methods of Figurative Phraseology Translation.          
3.2.1. Using of Phraseological Equivalent.  
3.2.2. Using of Phraseological Variant (Analogue).
3.2.3. Replication of Phraseological Units.  
3.2.4. Descriptive Translation.          
3.2.5. Translation of Specific National Phraseological Units.         
IV. Lexical Transformations and Methods of Creation of Contextual Substitutes.          
4.1. Kinds of Lexical Transformations.        
4.1.1. Additions. Semantic additions are inadmissible in translation.        
4.1.2. Omissions.       
4.1.3. Substitutes.      
4.2. Methods of Creating of Contextual Substitutes.          
4.2.1. Method of Concretization.     
4.2.2. Method of Generalization.     
4.2.3. Method of antonymic translation.      
4.2.4. Method of Compensation.      
4.2.5. Method semantic development.         
4.2.6. Method of complete interpretation.   
V. Conclusion.          
List of used literature:           
Lexical Problems of Literary Translation.
 
I. Introduction.
In process of translation grammatical and lexical phenomena are taken in as inseparably connected. Only consisting of a sentence functions of a word are discovered and their particular meaning is determined. A word keeps its semantic identity standing in different contexts. The context determines a proper meaning of a used word in every concrete case but all possible meanings of words are present constantly in a translator’s mind. In process of translation a translator has to confront with close to meaning English and Russian words to decide if he can use one or another word in translation.
In order to confront correctly English and Russian lexical units in translation of a concrete text a translator must know basic types of similar comparisons and which factors should be considered to choose a final variant of translation.
Most of words both in the Russian and English languages are polysemantic. Different meanings of a word are connected between each other and as a rule combined around common basic datum value. Semantics of a word reveals itself in the context, depends on lexical surroundings of the word. Therefore, for discovering exact meaning a word should be considered not isolated but in connection with other words and sometimes more large context is needed.
A notion about translation as a simple substitution of words of one language with words-equivalents from another one is mistaken as most of words are polysemantic and the whole system of the polysemantic word can’t coincide with the system of a word of another language. Cases of equivalent correspondences of polysemantic words haven’t been registered. Only terms and the words that by their nature are close to them can have equivalents. These kinds of words in language are no more then 30%. Since terms belong to a special vocabulary a proportion of the words-equivalents in news materials and fictions reduces still more. It should be taken into account that sometimes conditions of the context force to refuse even equivalent correspondence. A task for a translator consists in finding of variant correspondences and creating of contextual substitutes in those cases when variant correspondences can not be used by the terms of the context.
Thus, a work of a translator on transformation of ST into TT implies both a skill to use ready formulas and regularities that have been determined by practice of translation and solving of creative tasks.
The aim of this term paper is to show lexical problems of translation on the material of translation the novel “Theatre” by Somerset Maugham. For this it is necessary to solve the following tasks:
1. To show in what way translation of the words that have (and don’t have) lexical correspondences in the Russian language is realized.
2. To analyse characteristics and methods of translation of English figurative phraseology.
3. To give a notion of lexical transformation and its kinds.
4. Describe methods of creation of contextual substitutes.
 
II. Translation of Word.
2.1. Lexical Correspondences.
First of all a translation of a word starts from an attempt to discover in the Russian language the word that is coincident in the meaning with given one. There is a good deal of the Russian words which have a close meaning to English words. In the theory of translation that sort of words is named lexical or lexicographic correspondence.
Two basic types of semantic relations between words of the English and Russian languages are discovered:
1. A meaning of an English word corresponds completely to a meaning of a Russian one. That kind of correspondence implies that in all (or almost all) cases of using of an English word it will be conveyed in translation with this Russian word. Such permanent equivalent correspondences we will name equivalents.
For examples, English words London, cypress, twenty, Monday, March have equivalent correspondences in the Russian language: Лондон, кипарис, двадцать, понедельник, март.
Terms (not all), proper names, place-names, numerals, names of days of the week and months, etc. are also represented by equivalents in another language. There is not a lot of equivalent correspondences in languages as most of words are polysemantic. As a rule, polysemantic words don’t have one equivalent; an equivalent can have just single meaning of these words. For example, figure – фигура; цифра.
2. Meanings of several Russian words correspond partially to the meaning of an English word, i.e. this word has several lexical correspondences, similar by meaning. This type of correspondences is named variant correspondence.
A skill of a translator to a great extent consists in the ability to find a number of correspondences to English word and choose the variant that is more appropriate by the terms of the context. Let’s take, for example, the follow sentence from the novel:
# He said they could not afford to let sentiment stand in the way of business. (Chapter 7, page 61).
A dictionary gives 4 meanings of the word sentiment:
1) чувство, отношение, настроение, мнение;
2) сентиментальность, сантименты;
3) мысль;
4) тост.
First meaning of the four suits most of all. There are variant correspondences in the first meaning among that a translator has to choose most closely apt one. The translator of the novel chose the word чувство and translated this sentence in that way: Он сказал, что они не могут позволить чувствам мешать делу. (Стр. 52).
Very often a sequence of lexical variant correspondences given in a dictionary doesn’t satisfy a translator. He/she can’t make use of them, for instance, for stylistic reasons. In that case a translator prolongs a sequence of lexical correspondences. A word in particular context can take on special significance that is not constant but arises only in given context.
However, contextual meanings of words, though they are not constant, are not casual. They are not in dictionaries but there is always bond between a contextual meaning and a basic object-logical one. So a translator can “throw a bridge” from the meaning given in a dictionary to the originated contextual one. For example:
# We’ve had a couple of duds. The next play’s bound to be all right and then we shall get back all we’ve lost and a packet into the bargain. (Ch.9, p.77).
A dictionary gives the following meanings of the word dud:
1) лохмотья, рваная одежда;
2) никчемный человек или вещь;
3) фальшивая, поддельная вещь;
4) неразорвавшийся снаряд.
No one of the indicated in the dictionary meanings of this word suits for given context but it can be guessed by the next sentence. It means failure as between dud and failure the associative consecution can be built. So the word dud has the contextual meaning, the translator gives it with a mark “here” and translates: Ну, было у нас два провала. А следующая пьеса пойдет на ура, и мы с лихвой возместим все убытки. (С.64).
 
2.2. Translation of the Words that don’t have Direct Lexical Correspondences in the Russian language.
Many English words don’t have any direct correspondences among Russian lexical units. They are neologisms, the words which express specific notions and realities, little known names. Practice of translation has some ways of conveying of these words:
1) transliteration;
2) descriptive translation;
3) replication.
1. When a translator has to convey an English word which doesn’t have any correspondence in the Russian language he can try to recreate a form of the English word in translation in order to bring a lexical unit into the Russian language that corresponds to the translated English word.
A foreign form in translation can be conveyed by two ways: transliteration and transcription. Transliteration is based on conveying of graphical image of an English word, i.e. English letters. Transcription is based on phonetic principle, i.e. on conveying of the sounds of an English word by Russian letters. The last way conveys sounding of an English word more exactly as it proceeds from not English spelling but from its real sounding.
# Mrs. De Vries had seen Julia act in Middlepool. She gave parties so that the young actors might get to know managers, and asked them to stay at her grand house near Guildford, where they enjoyed a luxury they had never dreamed of. (Ch. 8, p.68).
Миссис де Фриз уже видела Джулию в Миддлпуле. Она устроила несколько званых вечеров, чтобы познакомить молодых актеров с антрепренерами, и пригласила их в свой великолепный дом возле Гилдфорда, где они окунулись в роскошь, которая никогда им не снилась. (С.57).
2. There is not such a word that couldn’t be translated into other language at least descriptively, in other words, by extended combination of words of given language. Usually, entire explanation of a meaning of a word doesn’t keep within the frameworks of TT, and a translator has to reduce to a minimum a translation-explanation, give only a part of the description or to footnote. Here are the examples from the novel:
# Evie was Julia’s dresser and maid. … She was a cockney, … (Ch.10, p.83).
Эви была горничная и костюмерша Джулии. … Она была кокни. (С.69).
The English word cockney is conveyed by not only transliteration but descriptively. The translator makes a foot-note: Кокни – уроженец Ист-Энда (рабочий квартал Лондона); речь кокни отличается особым нелитературным произношением и грамматическими неправильностями.
# “You can get back with the milk,” he’d said. (Ch.13, p.122). – Ты сможешь вернуться рано утром, когда станут развозить молоко. (С.96).
For English reader this sentence is natural and clear because it is an English tradition to drive milk in mornings but for TR it will be strange without any explanation.
 
3. For conveying of the lexica that doesn’t have any correspondences in TL replication is also used. It is creation of a new word, a word-combination or a compound word for notation of a corresponding object on bases of the elements which exist materially in a language. This word is named calque (backbencher - заднескамеечник, sky-scraper - небоскреб, influence - влияние). Here are the examples from the text:
# I might be squint-eyed and hump-backed. (Ch.7, p.60). – Я могла бы быть кривой (косоглазой) и горбатой. (С.52).
# She felt like a high-born damsel, … (Ch.6, p.58). – Она ощущала себя высокородной девицей, …(С.50).
Replication of set expressions is widely used (people of good will – люди доброй воли, on the brink of war – на грани войны):
# When Julia and Michael had decided to try their luck in London… (Ch.8, p.68). - Когда Джулия и Майкл решили попытать счастья в Лондоне, … (С.57).
# They drove the rest of the journey in stormy silence. (Ch.8, p.71). – Остаток пути прошел в грозовом молчании. (С.59).
Replication is applied sometimes on conveying some place-names (Cape of Good Hope – мыс Доброй Надежды, St. Lawrence River – река Св. Лаврентия):
# They had a small flat at Buckingham Gate… (Ch.7, p.60). - У них была небольшая квартирка на Бэкингем-гейт… (С.52).
# When Michael went away to the war Dolly pressed her to come and live in her house in Montagu Square, … (Ch.8, p.68). - Когда Майкл ушел на войну, Долу настаивала на том, чтобы Джулия переехала к ней, в ее дом на Монтегью-сквер, …(С.57).
 
III. Translation of Connected Word-Combinations (Phraseological Units).
3.1. Characteristics of English Figurative Phraseology.
The predominance of importance of the whole over importance of components is a character of phraseological units (further PU), i.e. connected word-combinations. Therefore, a translator has to translate a PU as a single whole. PUs are subdivided into figurative and not figurative.
The main task for a translator in translating of not figurative PUs is to keep up the norms of compatibility of words in the Russian language as quite often influence of English compatibility leads to literalisms (to make a sacrifice – приносить жертву, to have a good sleep – хорошо выспаться, to pay attention – обращать внимание).
# …took the matter in his own hands. (Ch.8, p.76). – …взял бразды правления в свои руки. (С.62).
# He took no notice of the flippant rejoinder. (Ch.2, p.23). – Джимми пропустил мимо ушей легкомысленный ответ. (С.26).
# Julia spent a happy morning in bed reading the Sunday papers. (Ch.8, p.71).
Джулия с удовольствием провалялась все утро в постели, просматривая воскресные газеты. (С.59).
Cardinal problems in the field of translation of set expressions are connected with translating of figurative phraseology which imparts vivacity, brilliance and pliancy to language. The task for a translator is to convey into the Russian language not only the meaning of a PU but its figurativeness and expressiveness.
# Julia was a damned good sort and clever, as clever as a bagful of monkeys; you could talk to her about anything in the world. (Ch.8, p.75).
Джулия славная женщина и умна, как сто чертей, с ней можно поговорить обо всем на свете. (С.62).
As a rule, an English PU has a lot of variant correspondences in the Russian language and every time a translator has to make a choice.
# She laid it on with a trowel. (Ch.8, p.75). (Lay it on with a trowel – грубо льстить, делать ч-л очень грубо, утрировать, хватить через край).
Больше она не боялась хватить через край. (С.62).
 
3.2. Methods of Figurative Phraseology Translation.
Best way of translating of a figurative PU is using of a correspondence. These correspondences can be equivalent and variant.
 
3.2.1. Using of Phraseological Equivalent. Phraseological equivalent is such a figurative PU in TL which entirely corresponds to one in SL by meaning and stylistic and which is based on the same image. To this group belong international expressions. They are in most of Europe languages and have common origin. Usually, they bear biblical-mythological or literary character (sword of Damocles – Дамоклов меч, to cross the Rubicon – перейти Рубикон, to shed crocodile tears – лить крокодиловы слезы).
# I believer you’re prouder of your family than of looking lake a Greek god. (Ch.3, p.30). Мне кажется, ты больше гордишься своей семьей, чем тем, что похож на греческого бога. (С.31).
# Then, shark naked, she skipped on to the bed, stood up on it for a moment, like Venus rising from the waves, … (Ch.11, p.105). – Затем, абсолютно голая, вскочила на кровать, постояла на ней минуту, как Венера, рожденная из пены, … (С.84).
# She was as strong as a horse and never tired… (Ch.11, p.92). – Она была сильна, как лошадь, и никогда не уставала, … (С.75).
# “Poor lamb, he must be as poor as a church mouse.” (Ch.11, p.101). – “Ах ты, ягненочек! Видно, беден, как церковная мышь.” (С.82).
There are two kinds of equivalents: absolute and relative. Absolute equivalents of set expressions coincide with an original in every respect: grammatically, lexically and stylistically (to cast a glance – бросить взгляд, the bitter truth – горькая правда, to play with fire – играть с огнем, to read between lines – читать между строк).
# The strange thing was that when she looked into her heart… (Ch.18, p.185). - И вот что самое странное: заглянув в свое сердце, … (С.142).
# …she realized that it would be a bitter blow to his pride… (Ch.8, p.75). - …она понимала, каким это будет для него жестоким ударом по самолюбию,…(С.62).
Relative equivalents of set expressions have grammatical or lexical differences from an original though they entirely coincide by meaning and stylistic (grass widow – соломенная вдова, to kill the goose that lays the golden eggs – убить курицу, несущую золотые яйца).
# Of course some of those Middlepool manufacturers were rolling in money,… (Ch.3, p.36). - Конечно, некоторые из мидллпульских фабрикантов просто купаются в золоте,… (С.35).
# …that she was head over ears in love with him. (Ch.4, p.40). - …что она прямо по уши влюблена в ее сына. (С.38).
# He hankered for compliments…They were food and drink to him. (Ch.9, p.82). – Хлебом его не корми – только скажи, как он хорош. (С.67).
 
3.2.2. Using of Phraseological Variant (Analogue). There is a few figurative PUs in the English and Russian languages which coincide with both meaning and figurativeness. More often a translator has to use a Russian PU that has a similar meaning but based on another image (to work one’s fingers to the bone – работать, не покладая рук, to hit the bird in the eyes – попасть в точку, on foot’s horse – на своих двоих).
# …he looked every inch a soldier. (Ch.7, p.63). - …он выглядел военным до кончиков ногтей. (С.54).
# You can twist her round your little finger. (Ch.8, p.69). – А ты можешь из нее веревки вить. (С.58)
# Gosh, I’m going down like a barrel of oysters. (Ch.4, p.41) – Черт возьми, все идет как по маслу! (С.38).
# It was the only chink in his armour. (Ch.9, p.82). – Это была его ахиллесова пята. (С.68).

3.2.3. Replication of Phraseological Units. To keep figurativeness of an original in translation of a PU that has neither equivalent nor analogue in the Russian language sometimes a translator uses replication or literal transmission of the image which is in English PU. It is possible if the received expression is taken in by TR easily and naturally, in compliance with norms of the Russian language (liars must have good memories – лжецам нужна хорошая память, love me, love my dog – любишь меня, люби и мою собаку).
# Men were creatures of habit; that gave women such a hold on them. (Ch.16, p.165). – Мужчины – рабы привычек, это помогает женщинам их удержать. (С.127).
# Plain living and high thinking, Miss Phillips. (Ch.10, p.86). – Скромный образ жизни, высокий образ мыслей. (С.70).

3.2.4. Descriptive Translation. If an English PU has neither equivalent nor analogue in the Russian language and literal translation could lead to obscure literalism a translator has to refuse to convey figurativeness and use descriptive translation, i.e. to explain the meaning of a PU by free state words (a skeleton in the cupboard (closet) – семейная тайна; неприятность, скрываемая от посторонних).
# Julia could almost have wished that it had failed like the others in order to take him down a peg or two. (Ch.9, p.78). (To take sb. down a peg or two - осадить к-л, сбить спесь).
Джулия чуть было не пожелала, чтобы эта пьеса тоже провалилась, как и две предыдущие, - так ей хотелось хоть немного сбить с него спесь.
# For once his cunning found its match. (Ch.9, p.78). (To find one’s match – встретить достойного соперника). - Наконец-то Майкл встретил достойного противника. (С.64).

3.2.5. Translation of Specific National Phraseological Units. Translating this kind of figurative units a translator should be guided by three basic rules:
1. To use literal translation only in the case if the English realities, which are a part of the PU, are well known to TR. For example: to carry coals to Newcastle – возить уголь в Ньюкасл, because everybody knows that Newcastle is a centre of England coal industry; but to dine with Duke Humphrey – остаться без обеда, но не обедать с герцогом Хемфри because TR doesn’t know who Duke Humphrey was.
2. To try to convey English PUs with vivid national coloring by Russian ones without national coloring (he will not set the Thames on fire – он пороха не выдумает; to fight like Kilkenny cats – бороться не на жизнь, а на смерть; Queen Anne is dead! – Открыл Америку!).
3. To use never Russian PUs which have specific national realities as they are unlikely to be applicable to English life. For example, to English PU to carry coals to Newcastle suits Russian one ездить в Тулу со своим самоваром, but it would be better here to use literal translation; or to the phrase what will Mrs. Drundy say? suits что будет говорить княгиня Марья Алексеевна? but что люди скажут is more appropriately.

IV. Lexical Transformations and Methods of Creation of Contextual Substitutes.
4.1. Kinds of Lexical Transformations.
Work of a translator on a word and a word-combination doesn’t add up to finding of equivalent or variant correspondence only. It involves also the work on lexical reforms or transformations. There are three kinds of lexical transformations:
1) additions;
2) omissions;
3) substitutes.
4.1.1. Additions. Semantic additions are inadmissible in translation. A translator can do semantic additions, i.e. explanations, only out of TT, in his/her notes that are taken outside of a text by footnotes. However, a translator has sometimes to add some words into the text so as not to break the norms of the Russian language.
# Over the chimney-piece was an old copy of Lawrence’s portrait of Kemble as Hamlet. (Ch.1, p.14). – Над камином висела старая копия портрета Кембла в роли Гамлета кисти Лоренса. (С.18). (Лоренс Томас (1769-1830) – английский живописец-портретист – a footnote is at the foot of the page).
# They opened with a failure and this was succeeded by another. (Ch.9, p.77).
 Пьеса, которой они открыли тот сезон, потерпела фиаско, то же произошло и со следующей. (С.63).
# She bustled Julia upstairs. (Ch.10, p.84). – Эви выпроводила Джулию из комнаты и погнала ее наверх. (С.69).    
 
4.1.2. Omissions. Sometimes, a translator can do some omissions if it’s necessary in order to avoid breaking of linguistic or stylistic norms of the Russia language. However, every omission must be justified. It’s not allowed to abuse this rule and omit everything that is difficult to translate.
It is typical of the English language using of paired synonyms. One of equivalent synonyms is omitted in translation as well as semantically surplus words. (The treaty was pronounced null and void. – Договор признан недействительным.).
# …if he had been an actor who loved her so much and had loved her so long… (Ch.11, p.97). – Будь он, скажем, актером и люби ее так давно и сильно,… (С.78).
# …and then went into the bathroom to wash her face and eyes. (Ch.11, p.96). - …и пошла в ванную комнату умыться. (С.78).
# She leant back in the chair and turned her head aside. (Ch.11, p.95). – Она откинулась в кресле и отвернулась. (С.77).
 
4.1.3. Substitutes. Substitutes can be lexical and contextual. Lexical substitute is replacement of single concrete words or word-combinations of SL with that of TL which are not their lexicographic correspondence, i.e. they have other lexical meaning than the words of ST. Characteristics of the context can force a translator refuse to use both variant and equivalent correspondences in translation. In that case he/she looks for the variant of translation that suits for the concrete case. That kind of translation is named contextual substitute.
# …he held himself with an arched back to keep his belly from sagging. (Ch.9, p.81). - …и держался неестественно прямо, чтобы не отвисал живот. (С.67).
# “Oh, well, it’s no good crying over spilt milk.” (Ch.10, p.83). – “Потерянного не воротишь.”(C.69).
Nature of a contextual substitute depends on characteristics of individual context and a translator has every time to look for special ways of translation. This task requires creative solution, therefore, it’s not possible to have fundamental. Nevertheless, there are same methods which are used for creating of contextual substitutes:
1) method of concretization;
2) method of generalization;
3) method of antonymic translation;
4) method of compensation;
5) method of semantic development;
6) method of complete interpretation.
 
4.2. Methods of Creating of Contextual Substitutes.
4.2.1. Method of Concretization. Concretization represents substitution of a word of ST with more large meaning on the word of TL with narrower one. There are a lot of words in the English language with general wide meaning which should be concretized in translation. For example:
come – прибывать, приезжать, приходить, подходить, прилетать и т.д.
leave – уезжать, покидать, уходить, оставлять, улетать, вылетать и т.д.
provide – заготовлять, сберегать, снабжать, доставлять, обеспечивать, давать средства, принимать меры, готовиться, предусматривать, обуславливать и т.д.
# …two of her front teeth were missing but, notwithstanding Julia’s offer, repeated for years, to provide her with new ones she would not have them replaced. (Ch.10, p.84).
…у нее не хватало спереди двух зубов, но, несмотря на неоднократное предложение Джулии дать ей деньги на новые зубы, Эви не желала их вставлять. (С.69).
By the example of the word thing that is met quite often in the novel it is seen how this word is concretized in different contexts.
# “Extravagant little thing, aren’t you?...” (Ch.6, p.56). – “Мотовочка, вот ты кто.” (C.49).
# “We know a thing or two about financing plays now.” (Ch.8, p.69). – “Мы с тобой уже хорошо знаем, при каких условиях финансируются пьесы.” (C.58).
# …and she thought of him as a nice old thing. (Ch.11, p.93). - …и она думала о нем, как о добром старом дядюшке. (С.75).
# If he tried that sort of thing she’d play the outrage heroine on him, … (Ch.11, p. 93). – Если он попробует с ней такие штучки, она разыграет оскорбленную добродетель…(С.76).
 # Then Julia did a disgraceful thing. (Ch.11, p.94). – И тут Джулия совершила позорный поступок. (С.77).
# When tempers were frayed his good humour, his real kindliness, smoothed thing over. (Ch.9, p.79). – Когда у них начинали сдавать нервы, его добродушие, его искренняя доброжелательность сглаживали все острые углы. (С.66).
# But he was not a man who let a thing drop when he had set his mind to it. (Ch.8, p.69). – Но Майкл был не из тех, кто легко отступается от того, что задумал. (С.58).
 
4.2.2. Method of Generalization. Generalization is substitution of a word with more narrow meaning on the word with larger one. This method is opposite to the method of concretization.
# …but he wanted to be his own master and now in the last year of his articles he had broken away and taken this tiny flat. (Ch.11, p.102). - …но он захотел быть сам себе хозяином и сейчас, в последний год учения, отделился от семьи и снял эту крошечную квартирку. (С.82).
The word article as a noun has the meanings статья, параграф, пункт, соглашение, договор, вещь, предмет, артикль. The meaning договор suits more because there is also a verb article – отдавать по контракту в учение. Combined these meanings the translator extended the meaning of the word article and translated it as учение though this word has its own translation in English: studies, learning, and apprenticeship.
 
4.2.3. Method of antonymic translation. The essence of this method is replacement of affirmative construction with negative one and vice versa that is accompanied by corresponding lexical substitute of SL unit with its antonym in TL.
# “Oh, my love, don’t you know there isn’t anything in the world I wouldn’t do for you?...” (Ch.8, p.72). – “Ах, моя любовь, разве вы не знаете, что я сделала бы для вас все на свете!” (С.60).
# Julia wondered why servants stayed with them. (Ch.8, p.76). – Джулия не понимала, почему прислуга их не бросает. (С.62).
# “Oh, I know people always lie about their debts,” she said with a laugh. (Ch.14, p.129). – “О, я знаю, люди никогда не признаются, сколько они задолжали,” – сказала она со смехом. (С.101).
Metaphrase (or literal translation) of these sentences would contradict to stylistic norms of the Russian language and do them clumsy.
# He was a trifle excited – but that is not unusual with him. – Он был несколько взволнован, но он почти всегда такой.
Here we have litotes – an affirmative utterance in a negative form. Litotes is widespread in the English language owing to a good deal of negative prefixes. It can be translated literally not always as in the Russian language the negative не and the negative prefix не- coincide in sounding. The words with the prefix не- go rarely together with the negative particle не because of such combination is discordant.     
 
4.2.4. Method of Compensation. This method is applied in that case when some linguistic phenomenon can’t be conveyed in TL. Compensating for loss which arises in translation because of some linguistic unit of ST can’t be translated a translator conveys the same information by the other means. Compensation is often used where it’s necessary to convey merely linguistic characteristics of ST (dialecticisms, individual features of speech, incorrect linguistic forms, pun, etc.) that have not always correspondences in TL. In translation of contaminative speech a translator can substitute for one linguistic means by others (grammatical – lexical, phonetic – grammatical and so on, in compliance with the Russian language norms).
# “For the little I eat I’ve got all the teeth I want. It’d only fidget me to ’ave a lot of elephant’s tusks in me mouth.”(Ch.10, p.84) – the words of Julia’s maid who was a cockney.
«Сколько я ем, для того и моих зубов много. Только мешать будет, коли напихаешь себе полон рот слоновьих клыков.» (С.69).
Method of compensation illustrates clearly one of the basic positions of theory of translation – not single elements should be translated adequately but all text as a whole. In other words, there are untranslatable particulars but there are not untranslatable texts.
 
4.2.5. Method semantic development. Using in translation of a word or a word-combination, whose meaning is logical development of the meaning of a translating unit, is named semantic development. It means deviation from direct lexical correspondence of given word or word-combination. Thus, fundamentally semantic development doesn’t differ from more simple methods of lexical transformation, concretization and generalization. Distinction is only in nature and degree of complexity of the method.
It’s necessary to have in view that semantic development always applies to not a single word but to a word-combination or a semantic group. Most often the meanings of such words and word-combinations in ST and TT are connected by cause-effect relations. At that substitution of cause by its effect (or vice versa) doesn’t break exactness of translation and, quite the contrary, is the best (at times the only) way of adequate conveying of ST content.
# Mrs. De Vries was a widow. She was a short stout woman with a fine Jewish nose and fine Jewish eyes, a great deal of energy, a manner at once effusive and timid, and a somewhat virile air. She had a passion for the stage. (Ch.8, p.68).
Долли де Фриз была вдова. Эта низенькая, тучная, несколько мужеподобная женщина, с красивым орлиным носом, красивыми темными глазами, неуемной энергией, экспансивная и вместе с тем неуверенная в себе, обожала театр. (С.57).
# On the other hand if he was shattered and tongue-tied, she’d be all tremulous herself,… (Ch.11, p.93). – С другой стороны, если он будет скован, не сможет выдавить из себя путного слова от смущения и расстройства чувств, она и сама будет робка и трепетна… (С.76).
 
4.2.6. Method of complete interpretation. This method is used when there is not possible to proceed from lexical correspondences or contextual meanings of single words of SL but there is a need to understand semantic meaning of the whole and “re-express” it into TL by other words. This is one of the most difficult methods of transformational translation.
This method is wide used in translation of PUs which reflect specificity of the English live spoken language (help yourself, please – угощайтесь (а не помогайте себе); good riddance! – скатертью дорога! тем лучше! (а не просто счастливое избавление), etc.).
# He had tact and a pleasant manner, and he knew how to pull strings adroitly; it was inevitable that he should get on the staff of some general. (Ch.7, p.62).
Майкл был тактичен, умел себя вести и искусно пускал в ход свои связи, он просто неминуемо должен был попасть в свиту какого-нибудь генерала. (С.53).
# Though they said he drove them like slaves, and they never had a moment to themselves, flash and blood couldn’t stand it, it gave them a sort of horrible satisfaction to comply with his outrageous demands. (Ch.2, p.19).
Они говорили, что он дерет с них три шкуры, у них минутки нет свободной, такой жизни даже скотина не выдержит, и при этом им доставляло какое-то особое удовольствие выполнять его непомерные требования. (С.21).
But the same phrase flash and blood couldn’t stand it (Ch.11, p.95) was translated кто бы мог устоять? (С.77)
V. Conclusion.
Language is a basic means of expression of any fiction. Nevertheless, the main task and difficulty of literary translation is not reproduction of linguistic, especially structurally-linguistic elements of a foreign speech but, taking into account inequality of linguistic system, to recreate artistically totality of ST images.
For a translator of fiction language is especially important just in literary respect, regarding its stylistic, figurative and expressive means which are provided by its particular literary function. A translator should not oppose language to literature but use both in the interests of literary translation.
 
List of used literature:
1. W.Somerset Maugham Theater. – М.: Издательство «Менеджер», 2001. – 304с.
2. Моэм У.С. Театр. – М.: «Эскимо-пресс», 2001. – 228с. Перевод Г.Островской.
3. Читалина Н.А. Учитесь переводить. – М.: «Международные отношения», 1975. – 80с.
4. Вопросы художественного перевода. Сборник статей. – М.: «Советский писатель»,1955. – 310с.
5. Вопросы теории художественного перевода. Сборник статей. – М.: «Художественная литература», 1971. – 254с.
1Архитектура и строительство
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25Налоговое право
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27Семейное право
28Таможенное право
29Трудовое право
30Уголовное право и процесс
31Финансовое право
32Хозяйственное право
33Экологическое право
34Юриспруденция
 
35Иностранные языки
36Информатика, информационные технологии
37Базы данных
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42Культурология
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88Экономика предприятия
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