Курсовая: Слова с разными значениями в британском и американском вариантах английского языка - текст курсовой. Скачать бесплатно.
Банк рефератов, курсовых и дипломных работ. Много и бесплатно. # | Правила оформления работ | Добавить в избранное
 
 
   
Меню Меню Меню Меню Меню
   
Napishem.com Napishem.com Napishem.com

Курсовая

Слова с разными значениями в британском и американском вариантах английского языка

Банк рефератов / Литература

Рубрики  Рубрики реферат банка

закрыть
Категория: Курсовая работа
Язык курсовой: Английский
Дата добавления:   
 
Скачать
Microsoft Word, 284 kb, скачать бесплатно
Заказать
Узнать стоимость написания уникальной курсовой работы
Текст
Факты использования курсовой

Узнайте стоимость написания уникальной работы

Contents
 
1. Introduction...............................................................................................................3
 
2.The main part..........................................................................................................4
 
       I History of formation of the American variant of English language...................4
 
   II English language - Differences of the American and British English language..6
 
       III The American English - the list of differences from the British English........8
 
       IV Lexical distinctions between American and British versions of English language. ...................................................................................................................10
 
       V Pronunciation..................................................................................................19
 
        VI Grammatic distinctions between American and British variants of English language...................................................................................................................22
 
        VII Modern condition of English language as polynational.............................24
 
3. The conclusion......................................................................................................26
 
4. The List of the used literature...............................................................................29
 
 
 
 
1 Introduction
 
The Americans are identical to the British in all respects except, of course, language."
Oscar Wilde
 
"Giving English to an American is like giving sex to a child. He knows it's important but he doesn't know what to do with it."
Adam Cooper (19th century)
 
"We (the British and Americans) are two countries separated by a common language."
G.B. Shaw
 
English it is possible by right to name language of the international dialogue, its role in the modern world is difficult for overestimating. Each person, wishing to get prestigious highly paid work, should speak in good English. In many countries the knowledge of this language is considered an attribute of erudition and competence. Besides, English - language of a science, modern technologies, trade, cultural and business relations, aircraft, navigation, diplomacy, etc.
Also it is impossible to forget, that in this language the significant part of the population of our planet speaks. It is an official state language of the Great Britain, the USA, Australia and New Zealand, it is one of state languages on territories of Canada, the republic of South Africa, Malta and the Irish Republic. As the second language English is widely widespread in India and a number of the African countries.
Certainly, all these countries have the distinctive features of the use of English language. Even inside of the Great Britain there are some regional variants. For example, лондонцы, especially well formed, speak at all how Scots. So-called Cockney English (break) - the special London dialect based on rhyming of conformable words, in general it is impossible to understand without special preparation. There are special expressions and at Australians: station large farm (ферма), beauts – sights (достопримечательности), и у индусов: a car-lifter-a car thief (угонщик), to bag-to capture (заполучить), fleetfoots-sneakers (кроссовки)
However, any of these variants has no so much characteristic features and it is not considered such significant and full, as the American variant of English language which and began to name - the American English (American English or Am. E.).
                              2 The main part.
I History of formation of the American variant of English language
 
In the beginning of the seventeenth century colonists from England have started to bring the language to America. The first settlement of Englishmen in Northern America has been based in 1607 is there was a city of Jamestown in territory of present state of Virginia. In November, 1620 arrived by the ship "Mayflower" puritans had been based the city of Plymouth. Inhabitants of these two settlements had various language traditions. Colonists of Jamestown " arrived mainly from the western part of England, from such counties, as Somerset and Gloucestershire, with a characteristic pronunciation for these places ( sound [s], that is Somerset they say the name as Zomerset, and a rolling pronunciation of a sound [r] after vowels) ". Plymuthcolonists arrived from east counties of England (Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Essex, Kent) and London where dialects were some other sort - so, the sound [r] after vowels there was absent. These sound distinctions continued to be kept and in the further. Carriers of various dialects were settled on the West and the south. And though the picture of distribution of dialects never was precise because of constant population shift from the north on the south and in the opposite direction and inflow of emigrants from the various countries of the world, distinctions at a level of dialects continue to be kept in the USA and now. In XVII - XVIII centuries streams of emigrants constantly grow, bringing with themselves a variety of languages and dialects. For example, the state of Pennsylvania was occupied mainly by Quakers who occured, as a rule, from average and northern parts of England. Formation of language of colonies influenced not only England. In XVIII century to Northern America the wave of immigrants from Ireland has rushed. In the West and the Southwest of the modern United States the main thing was the Spanish language. Along the river St.Lavrentiy natives of France lodged. In New York, Originally referred to New Amsterdam, the Dutch language predominated. Germans lodged in Pennsylvania. Besides a plenty of the Negros who have become by object slaveselling was imported into southern areas. All these new inhabitants of Northern America (it is not necessary to forget also aboriginals - Indians) brought the contribution to formation of a dialect of colonies. Mass emigration in the new state - the United States America - has proceeded in XIX - XX centuries thus, despite of an abundance of languages and cultures новопоселенцев, predominating language still there was an English. " Owing to natural process of assimilation the majority of families of immigrants started to speak English during a life of one-two generations ". However polycultural character of the United States is easy for noticing. In particular, policulture it is expressed at a level of antroponymus: " the USA meet personal names which have kept the national features: Spanish - Rodolfo, Dolores, etc., Italian - Antonio, Niccolo, Paolo, etc., Portuguese - Mario, Manuel, Raul, etc., German - Rupert, Rudolf, etc. ". However English language of North American colonies was essentially riched due to loans. They have borrowed words from American Indian languages for a designation of plants unfamiliar to them (for example, hickory - a sort of a hazel grove, or persimmon -) and animals (raccoon -woodchuck - a wood marmot). From the French language of a loan word chowder - a version of a soup, prairie -; from Dutch - words scow - a barge, a jolly boat, sleigh Many new words have appeared by a combination already known, for example, backwoods - a solitude, outskirt, bullfrog - (a kind of a frog). Many English words have received new value, for example, lumber in the meaning. "Stuff" (used in English language in narrower value - cloths, a tatter); corn in value "corn" (in England this word earlier designated any grain, as a rule, wheat). It is obvious, that new words appeared so far as as in a life of former Europeans now there was a set of new realities for which designation in English and other languages of words was not. Except for a lexicon, there was a difference in a pronunciation, in grammatic designs, especially strong - in intonation. Often the opinion expresses, that if colonization has occured двумя-three centuries earlier, the American variant of English as strongly would differ from British as modern French - from Italian, i.e. instead of different variants of one language would appear different languages. However colonization has occured after the invention of publishing and proceeded during an epoch of Education with its ideas of general formation. During long time the majority of the books readable in America, were English. Moreover, many colonists continued to support communications with England in what they differed from the Anglo-Saxon ancestors, as is known, torn any communications with continent after resettlement to British isles. Proenglish adjusted Americans condemned any "americanisms" emphasizing a difference between them and Englishmen. During present time many "americanisms" have was extended even in the British variant of English language.
 
II English language - Differences of the American and British English language
 
As a rule, it can be heard from lips of leading national news though local leaders, as a rule, use a local dialect. A principal cause of such crushing - that the USA were occupied very non-uniformly by inhabitants of the different countries, therefore even now in speech of concrete district it is possible to catch shades of language on which here spoke once. For the sake of justice, it is necessary to note, as the British English has similar features - the pronunciation can depend not only on district, but also from social group speaking. It still renders the big influence on how speak in former colonies of the British empire, but there as there are the dialects most known from which - the Canadian English and Australian English.
Quantity of differences of English from American dialects hugely. Traditionally it is considered, that the English variant is more formal, and is under construction under more strict grammatic laws, than American though in many respects it is caused by distinctions in national characters, and diligence of caricaturists.
Thus activity of the American entertaining industry is felt and behind ocean. Many American expressions are used behind ocean, at that that the return occurs seldom enough. Though some expressions from American even more often used as American, are British, others are actively used, and the some people are so often used both there, and there, that are considered as a part of a standard language. That is juicy, some words and language turns which have come to New light with the first colonists have not changed, having lost thus the former use in Old. Thus, some elements of old English now are considered cleanly American. By the way, in case you collide with English speech, it will be useful to remember, that in Britain 24 hour system, while in America - 12- (except for medicine and militarians) is more often used.
English curses in general. Englishmen, unlike Americans, talk smut rather seldom. Probably, it speaks specificity of their character. Therefore, if the Englishman who has approached to you has used in your address more than two obscene curses (the word "fuck" and derivative of it to obscene does not concern), be cautious: it is not excluded, that now you are to ba beaten, and, probably, with legs.
To get stuffed = to fill a stomach,. Englishmen love this word. Therefore in the British English popular saying of student's folklore " лучше переесть, чем недоспать " can sound approximately so: " It's better to get stuffed than not to have your sleep out ". And here the American can advise you " to get stuffed " in some other situation, especially, if you not his best friend.
Lemonade. In America that’s the name of non-sparkled drink. And it is not excluded, that it, really, it will be made of a lemon. In England IT call "squash". And here "lemonade" in british variant¬should be necessarily sparkled and cold, and to taste reminds US "pop" or "soda" more likely
Concerning to distribution of a variant of English, it is necessary to add, that popularity of this language and its existence in the modern world as an international language are connected with leading positions first of all the USA. It is surprising, that in the majority of educational establishments, as a rule, teach classical British English (Queen's English, earlier King's English, Royal English), but the majority of students imitate the American variant.
The American variant of English language has developed in territory of the USA for the period from the basis of colonies about one today. It was formed on the basis of the British variant with inclusion of elements of languages of immigrants, Indians. Differs from British elements of grammar, a pronunciation, a writing of words (center, theater), lexicon (gas station, railroad) and to other attributes, has own ethnic (for example, [Black English]) and territorial (for example, [Appalachian English]) dialects.Some researchers are inclined to consider as its independent language (American language). The standard variant of the American English can be named General American; some researchers consider, that to territories of the USA is widespread, at least, 5 basic regional variants (the east of New England [Eastern New England], the continental North [Inland Northern], northern Midland [North Midland] (the largest), southern Midland [South Midland], the South [Southern]). The basic lexical and phonetic standards of the modern language are traditionally fixed in Webster " s Dictionary
 
III The American English - the list of differences from the British English
 
The American English has got the international value after the second world war when the United States began to play the important role in a post-war reorganization of the world, and achievements in the field of policy, economy and modern technologies have allowed the USA to render significant influence for the whole world. Today the American English renders dominating influence on " world English ", and it speaks following factors:
1. Population (the number of carriers of the American English makes 70 % against 17 % of carriers of the British English from the general number speaking on English as native).
 
2. More powerful economy of the USA in comparison with British.
 
3.Superiority in strength of higher educational institutions in the USA in comparison with the Great Britain.
 
4.Scale of the printing industry of the USA.
 
5.Relevancy of influence of the American mass media and information technologies on a global scale.
 
6.Appeal American the pop-culture and its influence on language and a way of life of all globe
 
7.International political and an economic situation of the USA.
 
Both American English, and the British English are only variants of one same English language. Between them there are more than similarities, than distinctions, especially there where speech of the formed people sounds or language of a science is used. The reason of the majority of divergences are features of historical and cultural development of two countries, a variety of local and regional idioms and steady expressions, and also influence of mass media and advertising. Both Americans, and British mutually laugh and dislike languages each other. From the point of view of Englishmen American English too rectilinear and rough, and the British English they esteem for language of polite people. Americans consider the British English черезчур as the tense, hypocritical language of snobs, and native American affable and friendly. At petrol filling station in the USA you will hear: " Fill her up, will you? ", and in the Great Britain: " Would you mind filling up my car? "
The American English so has come off from Australian, New Zealand, Canadian and other variants and has left far forward, most likely, because the representatives of many European people who have arrived to America in searches of the best life while Australia and New Zealand were occupied mainly by British who have kept the language have taken part in its formation. The American English now meets even more often: it study at schools and high schools of other countries alongside with the standard British variant (Standard British English). Some americanisms supersede the British names of those or other subjects and concepts, and British sometimes use any more capacious and short word of the American variant in daily speech. This variant has won such popularity also that the USA play a huge role practically in all spheres of a life. Many, and it is rather fair, declare, that influence of this country comes too far, that the USA try to impose the point of view another. Partly it is valid so, but a subject of given clause at all is not the analysis of economic or political activity of America, and only the analysis of linguistic features of the American variant of English language and Its differences from British. Native speakers, both its British, and American variants, concern to these distinctions with some share of irony. It is enough to recollect statements of known people on this theme: " England and America are the two countries divided by one language ", " At British and Americans really much in common, except for language " (O.Uald). Such ironic attitude is shown and at cinema. The hero of film " This mad, mad, mad, mad world " director Stanley Kramer says: " As these Englishmen have spoiled our language! "
 
IV Lexical distinctions between American and British versions of English language.
 
The Englishman commented to the American about the "curious" way in which he pronounced so many words, such as schedule (pronounced shedule). The American thought about it for a few moments, then replied, "Perhaps it's because we went to different shools!" While in the UK I learned that the "English" and "American" languages have less in common than might be supposed. New words can be confusing and their meaning may be lost to you. More troublesome is a word which has a completely different meaning in each language. The problem is that you think you understand.
The distinctive features of American and British English can be seen especially in the following areas:
semantics (the meanings of words)
pronunciation
spelling
grammar
punctuation
 
The items found below may cause confusion for one who is conversant in both languages. The word being defined is an "English" word or phrase. The definition is in "American". All English words are entered in capital letters so the reader will not be misled. Mixed case words may be safely interpreted by the American reader. Not all meanings are given for a particular word. English words often have several meanings and only those which differ (from American) are listed here. There are some of the main differences in the English of American and British speakers. Differences in the way that the same language is spoken in different places are called varieties or dialects. These varieties may be regional or national. For example, we can hear different forms of English in various regions of the U.S., or in different parts of the English-speaking world.There are two important types of difference in the meanings of words in the two varieties:
 
1. The same object may have a completely different name
2.The same word is used in both varieties, but it may have a completely different meaning.
Same Object, Different Names
The Englishman commented to the American about the "curious" way in which he pronounced so many words, such as schedule (pronounced shedule). The American thought about it for a few moments, then replied, "Perhaps it's because we went to different shools!" While in the UK I learned that the "English" and "American" languages have less in common than might be supposed. New words can be confusing and their meaning may be lost to you. More troublesome is a word which has a completely different meaning in each language. The problem is that you think you understand.
 
The items found below may cause confusion for one who is conversant in both languages. The word being defined is an "English" word or phrase. The definition is in "American". All English words are entered in capital letters so the reader will not be misled. Mixed case words may be safely interpreted by the American reader. Not all meanings are given for a particular word. English words often have several meanings and only those which differ (from American) are listed here. Some of the biggest differences are in the words used for basic everyday things, such as common foods, household equipment, and the parts of a car.
Clothes
British English
American English
Trousers
Pants
Jersey
Sweater
Pinafore Dress
Jumper
Vest
Undershirt
Waistcoat
Vest
Wellington Boots / Wellies
Galoshes
Plimsolls
Gym Shoes
Trainers
Sneakers
Dressing Gown
Robe
Nappy
Diaper
Polo Neck
Turtle Neck
Dressing Gown
Bath Robe
Swimming costume / Cozzy
Bathing Suit
 
At School
British English
American English
Friend / Mate
Friend
Glue
Gum
Rubber
Eraser
Maths
Math
Public School
Private School
State School
Public School
Holiday
Vacation
School dinner
Hot Lunch
Staff Room
Teachers Lounge
Play Time / Break Time
Recess
Open Day / Open Evening
Open House
Marking Scheme
Grading Scheme
Drawing pins
pushpins
 
On the Road
British English
American English
Sleeping Policeman
Speed bump
Car park
Parking Lot
Car Journey
Road Trip
Zebra Crossing / Pedestrian Crossing
Cross Walk
Lollipop Man or Lady
Crossing Guard
Motorway
Freeway
Traffic Jam / Tailback
Traffic Jam
Lorry
Truck
Articulated Lorry
Tractor Trailer
Petrol
Gas / Gasoline
Pavement
Sidewalk
Petrol Station
Gas Station
Skip
Dumpster
Diversion
Detour
Fire Engine
Fire Truck
Phone Box
Telephone Booth
Buildings / Shop
British English
American English
Semi-Detached House
Duplex
Flat (one storey)
Apartment
Terrace
Town House
Chemist
Drug Store / Druggist
Cafe / Caffs (not 24 hrs)
Diner
Bungalow
House (one story)\Ranch House
 
Food
British English
American English
Biscuit / Bickie
Cookie
Scone
Biscuit
Fairy Cake
Cup Cake
Courgette
Zucchini
Sweets
Candy
Sausage / Banger
Sausage
Crisps         Potato Chips
Chips
(French Fries in McDonald's)
French Fries
Starter
Appetizer
Puddings / Afters / Dessert /
Sweets        Dessert
Jacket Potato / Baked Potato
Baked Potato
Jam
Jelly
Jelly
Jello
Aubergine
Eggplant
Sandwich / Butty / Sarny
Sandwich
Ice lolly
Popsicle
Bill (at restaurant)
check
Grill
Broil
Food / Grub / Nosh
Food
Rasher
A slice of bacon
Eggy bread (fried)
French Toast
Runner beans
Green beans
Take-away
Take out
Scotch Pancakes
Flapjacks
Parts of a Car
British English
American English
Windscreen
Windshield
Boot
Trunk
Reversing lights
Back-up lights
Exhaust pipe
Tail pipe / Muffler
Bumper
Fender
 
In and around the House
British English
American English
The Toilet / Loo / The John /
Bog / WC
Bathroom / Restroom
 
Tap
Faucet
Garden        Backyard
Yard
Wardrobe
Closet
Bin / Dust Bin
Trash Can
Telephone / Blower / Phone
Freeway
Television / Box / Telly/ TV
TV / Television
Couch / Sofa / Settee
Sofa
Hand Basin /
Sink
Run the bath
Fill the tub
 
People
British English
American English
Girl / Lass
Girl
Boy / Lad
Boy
Man / Bloke / Gentleman / Guy /
Chap
Man / Guy
Lady / Woman
Lady
Policeman / Bobby / Copper
Policeman / Cop
Postman
Mailman
Dustman
Garbage Man
Cashier
Teller
Nutter
Crazy Person
Mum
Mo
 
Sport
British English
American English
Football
Soccer
Rounders
Baseball
Bat (table tennis)
Paddle (ping pong)
 
Other Words
British English
American English
Plaster
Band-Aid
Autumn
Fall
Bank Holiday
National Holiday
Lift
Elevator
Queue
Line
Quid (slang for pound)
Bucks
Surgery
Doctor's office
Trodden on
Stepped on
I'm knackered
I'm Beat
Kip / sleep
sleep
Wireless / Radio
Radio
Starkers / naked
Naked
Come round
Come over
Off you go
Go ahead
It's gone off
It's spoiled
Lady bird
Lady bug
mobile phone
cellphone
ground floor |
1st Floor
1st Floor
2nd Floor
government
Administration
homework
Assignment
assembly
Auditorium
luggage
Baggage
cellar
Basement
bank note |
Bill
milliard |
Billion
sad
Blue
tin
Can
draughts
Checkers
maize
corn
Druggist
chemist
Fix
repair
Game
match
mark
Grade
ensure
Insure
cross-roads
Intersection, junction
paraffin
Kerosene
surname
Last name
lend
Loan
situated
Located
conjurer
Magician
post
Mail
tube/underground |
Metro/subway
serviette
Napkin
porridge
Oatmeal
parcel
Package
larder
Pantry
whitewax
Paraffin
road
Pavement
chairman|
President
test
Quiz
sultana
Raisin
book
Reserve
timetable
Schedule
drain
Sewer/soil pipe
store
shop
briefs |
Shorts
jab
Shot
tram
Streetcar
label
Tag
rates
Taxes
essay/project
Term paper
fortnight
Two weeks
subway
|Underpass
hoover
Vacuum cleaner
quay
Wharf
telegram
Wire
spanner
Wrench
postal code
Zip code
 
Same Word, Different Meanings
Differences of this type can be very confusing, even for people whose first language is English. The Macmillan English Dictionary provides over 25 special usage notes that deal with these American/British "false friends".
1Архитектура и строительство
2Астрономия, авиация, космонавтика
 
3Безопасность жизнедеятельности
4Биология
 
5Военная кафедра, гражданская оборона
 
6География, экономическая география
7Геология и геодезия
8Государственное регулирование и налоги
 
9Естествознание
 
10Журналистика
 
11Законодательство и право
12Адвокатура
13Административное право
14Арбитражное процессуальное право
15Банковское право
16Государство и право
17Гражданское право и процесс
18Жилищное право
19Законодательство зарубежных стран
20Земельное право
21Конституционное право
22Конституционное право зарубежных стран
23Международное право
24Муниципальное право
25Налоговое право
26Римское право
27Семейное право
28Таможенное право
29Трудовое право
30Уголовное право и процесс
31Финансовое право
32Хозяйственное право
33Экологическое право
34Юриспруденция
 
35Иностранные языки
36Информатика, информационные технологии
37Базы данных
38Компьютерные сети
39Программирование
40Искусство и культура
41Краеведение
42Культурология
43Музыка
44История
45Биографии
46Историческая личность
47Литература
 
48Маркетинг и реклама
49Математика
50Медицина и здоровье
51Менеджмент
52Антикризисное управление
53Делопроизводство и документооборот
54Логистика
 
55Педагогика
56Политология
57Правоохранительные органы
58Криминалистика и криминология
59Прочее
60Психология
61Юридическая психология
 
62Радиоэлектроника
63Религия
 
64Сельское хозяйство и землепользование
65Социология
66Страхование
 
67Технологии
68Материаловедение
69Машиностроение
70Металлургия
71Транспорт
72Туризм
 
73Физика
74Физкультура и спорт
75Философия
 
76Химия
 
77Экология, охрана природы
78Экономика и финансы
79Анализ хозяйственной деятельности
80Банковское дело и кредитование
81Биржевое дело
82Бухгалтерский учет и аудит
83История экономических учений
84Международные отношения
85Предпринимательство, бизнес, микроэкономика
86Финансы
87Ценные бумаги и фондовый рынок
88Экономика предприятия
89Экономико-математическое моделирование
90Экономическая теория

 Анекдоты - это почти как рефераты, только короткие и смешные Следующий
Жена:
- Не хочешь тяпнуть соточку?
Муж недоверчиво:
- Хочуу...
- Тогда собирайся на дачу, ток тяпку не забудь!
Anekdot.ru

Узнайте стоимость курсовой, диплома, реферата на заказ.

Обратите внимание, курсовая по литературе "Слова с разными значениями в британском и американском вариантах английского языка", также как и все другие рефераты, курсовые, дипломные и другие работы вы можете скачать бесплатно.

Смотрите также:


Банк рефератов - РефератБанк.ру
© РефератБанк, 2002 - 2016
Рейтинг@Mail.ru